Global training solutions for engineers creating the world's electronics

Summary of the Easier UVM Coding Guidelines

Version 2016-06-24

This summary page can be adapted for use as a checklist when reviewing UVM code. It can either be used directly or can be merged into your own company-specific UVM coding guidelines. The summary only gives a terse statement of each guideline, but you can click on each guideline to jump to a more detailed explanation.

Lexical Guidelines and Naming Conventions
General Guidelines
General Code Structure
Clocks, Timing, Synchronization, and Interfaces
Split Transactors for Emulation/Acceleration
Stimulus and Phasing
Connection to the DUT
TLM Connections
Configurations [UPDATED]
The Factory
Register Layer
Functional Coverage


Lexical Guidelines and Naming Conventions

☐ Have only one declaration or statement per line.

☐ When creating user-defined names for SystemVerilog variables and classes, use lower-case words separated by underscores (as opposed to camelBackStyle).

☐ When creating user-defined names for SystemVerilog enum literals, constants, and parameters, use upper-case words separated by underscores.

☐ Restrict all user-defined UVM instance names (that is, strings such as component instance names) to the character set a-z, A-Z, 0-9 and _ (underscore).

☐ Use shorter names for local variables and longer, more descriptive names for global items such as class names and package names.

☐ Use the prefix m_ before the names of user-defined class member variables (officially known as class properties in SystemVerilog).

☐ Use the names m_sequencer, m_driver, and m_monitor as the instance names of the sequencer, driver, and monitor respectively within every agent.

☐ Use the suffixes _env and _agent after the instance names of every env and agent, respectively.

☐ Use the name m_config as the instance name of the configuration object within any component or sequence that has one.

☐ Use the suffix _config after user-defined configuration class names.

☐ Use the suffix _port after user-defined port names.

☐ Use the suffix _export after user-defined export names.

☐ Use the suffix _vif after user-defined virtual interface names.

☐ Use the suffix _t after user-defined type definitions introduced using the keyword typedef

☐ Use the suffix _pkg after user-defined package names.

☐ Write comments wherever they add value to the source code and help the reader to understand the purpose of the code.

☐ Include white space (blank lines, indentation) wherever it helps to make the code more readable.

☐ When overriding built-in UVM virtual methods, do not insert the virtual keyword at the start of the overridden method definition.



General Guidelines

☐ Do not use any features of UVM that are specifically marked as deprecated in the UVM Class Reference or base class library.

☐ Do not use internal features of the UVM base class library code that are not documented in the UVM Class Reference.


General Code Structure

☐ In structuring and coding the verification environment, think primarily about reuse.

☐ Use a consistent file structure and a consistent file naming convention throughout.

☐ Each class should be defined within a package (as opposed to defining classes within modules or at file scope).

☐ Use 'include' directives within a package to allow each class to be placed in a separate file.

☐ Use conditional compilation guards to avoid compiling the same include file more than once.

☐ Do not use wildcard import at compilation unit scope.

☐ Include uvm_macros.svh and import uvm_pkg::* inside each package or module that refers to the UVM base class library.

☐ Use one agent per interface, with a passive monitor and optional sequencer and driver whose existence is determined by the value of the get_is_active method of class uvm_agent.

☐ An agent should not instantiate components other than the canonical agent structure of one sequencer, one driver, and one monitor.

☐ Use virtual sequences to co-ordinate the stimulus generation activities of multiple parallel agents, that is, to start sequences on the sequencers belonging to multiple agents.

☐ Checking and functional coverage collection should be performed in checkers, scoreboards, coverage collectors, and other ad hoc subscriber components that are instantiated external to any agent and connected to the analysis port of the monitor.

☐ In general, connect agents, checkers, scoreboards, and coverage collectors using analysis ports and exports.

☐ UVM envs should be written such that they can be used as top-level envs or reused as sub-envs in other larger verification environments.

☐ Use factory overrides and/or the configuration database to adapt the behavior of repurposed UVM components to the needs of a new verification environment.

☐ A top-level module should set configuration parameters that are retrieved by the test, the test should set parameters retrieved by the env, and the env should set parameters retrieved by lower-level envs or agents.

☐ Represent layered protocols by having multiple sequencers, each with their own transaction type.


Clocks, Timing, Synchronization, and Interfaces

☐ Generate clocks and resets in a SystemVerilog module, never in the UVM class-based verification environment and never in a SystemVerilog program.

☐ Use SystemVerilog modules in preference to SystemVerilog programs.

☐ Use clocking blocks within a SystemVerilog interface in order to sense and drive a synchronous DUT interface.

☐ Use modports to enforce the use of clocking blocks when accessed through virtual interfaces from the UVM verification environment.

☐ Use modports that combine a clocking block with asynchronous signals in order to access an interface that combines synchronous and asynchronous signals.

☐ In the verification environment, try where possible to confine synchronization to signals in the DUT interface and explicit delays to drivers and monitors, with other UVM components being untimed.

☐ A driver should pull transactions from a sequencer using the non-blocking try_* methods in order to maximize reusability in the scenario where the author cannot know whether the sequence will block the execution of the driver.

☐ A driver should only pull down transactions from the sequencer when it needs them.

☐ If a driver needs to insert variable delays within or between transactions when driving the pins of an interface, this should be handled by storing delays in the transaction passed to the driver.

☐ Use the uvm_event or uvm_barrier for ad hoc synchronization between sequences and/or analysis components such as scoreboards.

☐ A monitor should not assign values to variables or wires in the SystemVerilog interface.

☐ Use concurrent assertions and cover property in interfaces for protocol checking and related coverage collection.


Split Transactors for Emulation/Acceleration

☐ For emulation/acceleration, have two top-level SystemVerilog modules, one module that runs on the host computer and instantiates the UVM verification environment and a second module that is synthesized and runs on the emulator or accelerator.

☐ The UVM verification environment running on the host computer should be untimed. It should not contain any delays or refer to any clocks. Any delays and clocks should be moved to the emulator/accelerator.

☐ Split each UVM driver and monitor into two parts, an untimed part that runs on the host and a synthesizable part (BFM) that runs on the emulator/accelerator.



☐ Create user-defined transaction classes by extending the class uvm_sequence_item.

☐ Try to minimize the number of distinct transaction classes. Use the same transaction class for the driver and monitor of an agent.

☐ Register the transaction class with the factory using the macro `uvm_object_utils as the first line within the class.

☐ Do not use field macros.

☐ After the factory registration macro, declare any member variables.

☐ Use the rand qualifier in front of any class member variables that might need to be randomized, now or in the future.

☐ After any member variables, define a constructor that includes a single string name argument with a default value of the empty string, a call to, and is otherwise empty:

☐ After the constructor, always override the convert2string, do_copy, do_compare, do_print, and do_record methods.

☐ Consider overriding the do_pack and do_unpack methods.

☐ When overriding do_pack and do_unpack, use the packing and unpacking macros (e.g. `uvm_pack_int) where they will simplify the code.

☐ When overriding do_record, use the recording macros (e.g. `uvm_record_attribute and `uvm_record_field) where they will simplify the code.

☐ When overriding the do_print, do_record, do_compare, and do_pack methods, do not make use of the printer, recorder, comparer, and packer policy object arguments to those methods within the body of the overridden method.

☐ Always instantiate transaction objects using the factory.

☐ In general, the string name of the transaction should be the same as the variable name.



☐ Create user-defined sequence classes by extending the class uvm_sequence, parameterized with the type of the transaction to be generated by the sequence.

☐ Register the sequence class with the factory using the macro `uvm_object_utils as the first line within the class.

☐ After the factory registration macro, declare any member variables (using the prefix m_ as a naming convention).

☐ Use the rand qualifier in front of any class member variables that might need to be randomized, now or in the future.

☐ After the member variables (if any), define a constructor that includes a single string name argument with a default value of the empty string, a call to, and is otherwise empty.

☐ Any housekeeping code associated with the execution of a sequence, such as raising and lowering objections, should be placed in the pre_start and post_start methods of the sequence. The body method of the sequence should only execute the raw functional behavior of the sequence.

☐ When generating transactions from the body task of a sequence, do so using procedural code with the following general pattern:

req = tx_type::type_id::create("req");
if ( !req.randomize() ) ...

☐ Do not use the `uvm_do family of macros.

☐ Use the built-in transaction variables req and rsp within a sequence, unless there is a specific reason to choose different variable names.

☐ Only generate sequence items (transactions) from UVM sequences, not from ad hoc classes and not from UVM components.

☐ Always instantiate sequence objects using the factory. Instantiations should take the form:

seq_name = sequence_type::type_id::create("seq_name");

☐ The string name of each sequence object should be the same as the variable name.

☐ When creating a sequence object, always call the randomize method of the sequence object before starting the sequence.

☐ Always check the value returned by the randomize method and report an error should randomization fail.

☐ Start sequences procedurally by calling their start method.

☐ Only override the pre_do, mid_do, and/or post_do callbacks of a sequence class as a way to modify the behavior of a pre-existing "immutable" sequence class.

☐ Use the macro uvm_declare_p_sequencer to declare a variable p_sequencer in situations where a sequence needs access to the sequencer on which it is running.

☐ Where a sequence needs access to a sequencer other than the sequencer on which it is itself running, add a member variable to the sequence object and assign that variable to refer to the sequencer before starting the sequence.


Stimulus and Phasing

☐ Use a virtual sequence to coordinate the behavior of multiple agents.

☐ Virtual sequences should be started on the null sequencer.

☐ Have a top-level sequence running on each agent that selects between all permissible child sequences at random.

☐ Keep sequences as generic as possible: avoid writing directed sequences except where absolutely necessary.

☐ Sequences should not be phase-aware.

☐ Do override the run-time phase methods reset_phase, configure_phase, main_phase, shutdown_phase to generate stimulus, typically by starting sequences, but never in a driver, monitor, subscriber, or scoreboard component.

☐ Do introduce user-defined run-time phases where the above predefined run-time phase methods are inappropriately named or would cause confusion.

☐ When integrating multiple environments that each override the predefined or user-defined run-time phase methods, take care to order the phases correctly by introducing phase domains and synchronizing phases across domains.

☐ Do not override the predefined pre- and post- phase methods (e.g. pre_reset_phase), but reserve these phase for use when synchronizing phases across domains.

☐ Do plan any phase jumps carefully to ensure UVM components are left in a consistent state.



☐ Determine when to end the test by raising and dropping objections in any classes that may need to extend the test while they complete some processing. (This rule has changed significantly since the first preliminary release of these guidelines.)

☐ Call the set_propagate_mode(0) method of every objection (UVM 1.2 onward) to disable the hierarchical propagation of that objection.

☐ Consider the simulation speed impact of raising and dropping objections in inner loops, e.g. for individual transactions. Remove objections from inner loops if the simulation speed penalty is significant.

☐ Where a sequence is to raise and drop objections, it should call raise_objection in its pre_start method and drop_objection in its post_start method.

☐ Always perform the test if (starting_phase != null) before calling raise_objection or drop_objection within a sequence.

☐ When starting a sequence that can raise and drop objections, if you want the sequence to raise and drop objections, set the starting_phase member of the sequence object before starting the sequence.

☐ When calling raise_objection or drop_objection, always pass a 2nd argument describing the objection to help with debug.

☐ If the kill method of a sequence is called and the sequence can raise an objection, ensure that the do_kill method of the sequence is overridden to drop the objection.



☐ Create user-defined component classes by extending the appropriate subclass of class uvm_component in order to indicate intent.

☐ Register the component class with the factory using the macro `uvm_component_utils as the first line within the class.

☐ After the factory registration macro, declare any ports, exports and virtual interfaces (using the suffixes given in the section on Lexical Guidelines and Naming Conventions above).

☐ After the ports, exports, and virtual interfaces, declare any member variables (using the prefix m_ as a naming convention).

☐ After any member variables, define a constructor that includes string name and parent arguments with no default values and a call to

☐ Instantiate any components from the build_phase method.

☐ Always instantiate components using the factory. Instantiations should take the form:

var_name = component_type::type_id::create("var_name", this);

☐ The string name of the component should be the same as the variable name.

☐ The second argument to create should be the reserved word this.

☐ Where a user-defined component class extends another user-defined component class, care should be taken to insert calls of the form super.<phase_name>_phase wherever appropriate, that is, where the corresponding base class phase method performs some action.

☐ Where a user-defined component class directly extends a class from the UVM base class library and overrides the standard build_phase method, do not call super.build_phase.


Connection to the DUT

☐ Use one SystemVerilog interface instance per DUT interface.

☐ Use virtual interfaces to access the SystemVerilog interfaces from the UVM verification environment.

☐ Encapsulate virtual interfaces inside a configuration object in the configuration database.

☐ Copy virtual interfaces from the top-level configuration object to the configuration objects associated with agents or lower-level envs in the build_phase method of the top-level env.

☐ An agent should check that its virtual interface has been set.


TLM Connections

☐ Make TLM port/export connections and assign virtual interfaces in the connect_phase method.

☐ Communicate between UVM components using ports and exports, including analysis ports and exports where appropriate.

☐ Use analysis ports and analysis exports (or objects of class uvm_subscriber) when making one-to-many connections between UVM components.

☐ When making peer-to-peer connections between components, connect a port (or analysis port) directly to an export (or analysis export) without any intervening FIFO.

☐ Communicate with an agent in one of two ways: Either connect the analysis port of the agent to a subscriber or access the sequencer within the agent using a direct object reference from outside.


Configurations [UPDATED]

☐ Use the configuration database uvm_config_db rather than the resource database uvm_resource_db.

☐ Group the configuration parameters for a given component into a configuration object and set that configuration object into the configuration database.

☐ The top-level configuration object should contain references to any lower-level configuration objects. [UPDATED]

☐ Create user-defined configuration classes by extending the class uvm_object.

☐ Use the class name <component_class>_config or <sequence_class>_config for the configuration class associated with a component or a sequence, respectively, where <component_class> is the class name of the component and <sequence_class> is the class name of the sequence.

☐ Use the field name "config" for the configuration object in the configuration database.

☐ Do not register user-defined configuration classes with the factory.

☐ A component should typically get and set configuration parameters (typically configuration objects) in its build_phase method, as opposed to any other phase methods.

☐ Always check the bit returned from uvm_config_db#(T)::get to ensure that the configuration parameter exists in the configuration database.

☐ A sensible default value should be chosen if uvm_config_db#(T)::get returns 0.

☐ Each component should get the configuration object associated with that specific component instance, and should not get the configuration object of any other component instance.

☐ The configuration object associated with any given component instance should be set by its parent or by some other direct ancestor of that component instance, and not by any other component instance.

☐ Avoid using an absolute hierarchical path name as the 2nd argument to uvm_config_db#T(T)::set, and provide the shortest possible unique path name.

☐ A component instance may be associated with one configuration object or with no configuration object, and several component instances may be associated with the same configuration object.

☐ For an agent, include a variable is_active in the configuration object to determine whether the agent is active or passive. Override the virtual get_is_active method to return this value. Check get_is_active before creating and connecting the sequencer and driver within the agent.

☐ If a sequence is to be parameterized, the parameters for the sequence should be put into a configuration object in the configuration database. The configuration object should be associated with the sequencer on which the sequence is to run.

☐ Any configuration object associated with a sequence should be got from the configuration database at the start of the sequence and a variable in the sequence object should be assigned to refer to that configuration object. [UPDATED]

☐ If a component directly assigns the values of variables (including virtual interfaces) in its child components, it should do so in its build_phase method after creating those child components.


The Factory

☐ Always instantiate transaction, sequence, and component objects using the factory.

☐ When using a factory override to substitute a transaction, sequence, or component object with another object whose class extends the class of the original, the factory override should take one of these forms:

old_type_name::type_id::set_type_override( new_type_name::get_type() );
old_type_name::type_id::set_inst_override( new_type_name::get_type() ... );

☐  Call the static method uvm_factory::get() when you need access to the factory.



☐ Do not generate stimulus directly from the test, but use the test to set configuration parameters and factory overrides.

☐ Set up the fixed aspects of the verification environment and generate default stimulus in the env class, not the test class, so that the env will run even with an empty test.

☐ Where appropriate, use test base classes to define structure and behavior that is common across a set of tests, and create individual tests by extending these base classes.

☐ For reuse, avoid making tests dependent on the specific details of the verification environment.

☐ Use the command line processor to modify the behavior of tests without the need for recompilation.



☐ To report a message, always use one of the eight standard report macros `uvm_info, `uvm_info_context, and so forth, rather than ad hoc $display statements or similar.

☐ Set the message id either to a static string or to get_type_name().

☐ Set message verbosity levels thoughtfully and methodically to avoid unnecessary data in the simulation log file and to differentiate between messages intended for use during the development and debug of the verification environment itself and messages intended for use when running tests and debugging the DUT.

☐ By default, set the verbosity level of each message to a high number such that the message is less likely to be reported, rather than to a low number such that the message is always reported.

☐ Set message severity levels thoughtfully to differentiate between messages that are purely informational, messages that may represent errors, and messages that are certainly errors.


Register Layer

☐ If you use a generator to create the SystemVerilog code for the register model, do not modify the generated code.

☐ The top-level UVM environment should instantiate the register block using the factory and should call the build method of the register model.

☐ In the case of a hierarchically organized UVM environment where child environments use register models, there should be a single top-level register block that instantiates the register blocks associated with the child environments, and so on down the hierarchy.

☐ Any UVM environment that uses a register model should have a variable named regmodel that stores a reference to the register block for that specific environment.

☐ A UVM environment that has a register model should set the regmodel variable of any child component that also uses a register model to the corresponding sub-block of its register block.

☐ A UVM environment should only instantiate a register block if the value of the environment's regmodel variable is null.

☐ The variable name and the UVM instance name of each child register block in the register model itself should correspond to the name of the associated agent.

☐ A register block should only model DUT registers that are accessible by the UVM sequences associated with the immediately enclosing UVM environment.

☐ A UVM environment that uses a register model and that instantiates an agent should instantiate and connect a register adapter and a register predictor for that agent.

☐ A register model should use explicit prediction to keep its mirror values synchronized with the register values in the DUT.

☐ The address map variable .map of the predictor in each child register block should be assigned to refer to the corresponding address map of the top-level register block.

☐ A register sequence that reads or writes registers in a register model should extend uvm_sequence and should have a variable named regmodel that stores a reference to the corresponding register block.

☐ Before starting a sequence that reads or writes registers, set the regmodel variable of that sequence.


Functional Coverage

For a general discussion of coverage-driven verification in UVM, see Coverage-Driven Verification Methodology.

☐ Collect functional coverage in the UVM verification environment using the SystemVerilog covergroup construct.

☐ Where appropriate, collect functional coverage information in SystemVerilog interfaces using the cover property statement.

☐ Either place a covergroup in a class as an embedded covergroup or place a covergroup in a package and parameterize the covergroup so that it can be instantiated from classes in that package.

☐ Covergroups should be instantiated within UVM component classes as opposed to within transaction or sequence classes.

☐ Covergroups should be instantiated within UVM subscribers or scoreboards that are themselves instantiated within a UVM environment class and are connected to the analysis ports of monitors/agents.

☐ Instantiate the covergroup in the constructor of the coverage collector class.

☐ In order to collect functional coverage information for internal signals within the DUT, encapsulate references to hierarchical paths to the DUT in a single SystemVerilog module (or interface), then access that module from the UVM environment using a virtual interface and SystemVerilog interface in the usual way.

☐ Where coverage collection spans multiple DUT interfaces and thus depends on analysis transactions received from more than one agent, use the `uvm_analysis_imp_decl macro to provide multiple analysis exports in the coverage collector class.

☐ Group coverpoints into multiple covergroups in order to separate coverage of specification features from coverage of implementation features.

☐ Use a variable coverage_enable within the configuration object of the coverage collector to enable or disable coverage collection.

☐ Sample covergroups by calling their sample method as opposed to specifying a clocking event for the covergroup.

☐ Do not sample covergroups more frequently than necessary. Consider using a conditional expression iff (expression) with each coverpoint to reduce the sampling frequency.

☐ Sample values within the DUT or at the outputs of the DUT. Do not sample the stimulus applied to the inputs of the DUT. Sample DUT registers when the register value is changed by the DUT, not when it is changed directly by the stimulus.

☐ Consider setting the option.at_least of each covergroup and coverpoint to some value other than the default value of 1.

☐ Do not set option.weight or option.goal of a covergroup or coverpoint.

☐ Design coverpoint bins carefully to ensure that functionally significant cases are covered.

☐ When designing coverpoints, specify any illegal values or values to be excluded for coverage as ignore_bins. Do not use illegal_bins.



Easier UVM Coding Guidelines

Easier UVM - Deeper Explanations

Easier UVM Code Generator

Easier UVM Video Tutorial

Easier UVM Paper and Poster

Easier UVM Examples Ready-to-Run on EDA Playground


Back to the full list of UVM Resources